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Islam Timeline

5th C. - Sack of Rome
6th C. - Kanem founded
570 - Birth of Mohammed
610 - Beginning of call
622 - AH - Anno Hegira: year zero in Muslim calendar, dating from flight of the Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to Medina
632 - Death of Prophet Mohammed
639 - Muslim invasion of Egypt under Amr Ibn al-As challenging Roman Byzantine rule
640-750 - Umayyad Caliphate
642 - Byzantine administration expelled from Alexandria. Cairo founded South of Alexandria
657 - Kharjitism (Kharjite Movement) starts in West of Maghreb (North Africa)
670 - Kairwan founded (in modern Tunisia)
690 - Byzantine fleet defeated at Carthage, Tunis built
early 8th C. - Western Algeria and Morocco conquered Old Ghana first mentioned in Arabic documents
711 - Atlantic coast of Morocco reached by Arabs
717 - Heavy taxation moves large numbers of Coptic Christians to convert to Islam
740 - Beginning of Kharjite revolt, leading to overthrow of Umayyad dynasty
750 - Abbasid dynasty. Governing centre of Muslims moves from Mecca to Baghdad
800 - Aghlabid dynasty established in Irfiqiya
late 9th C. - Egypt ruled by Turkish Military Governors & multi-ethnic army
910 - Fatimid dynasty came to power in Kairwan and gains control of Central Maghreb
934 - Fatimid fleet sacks Genoa in Italy
950 - Fatimid dynasty gains control of Northern Tunisia and Algeria
969 - Fatimid dynasty takes Egypt from Turkish military rulers
996-1021 - Persecution of Copts under Caliph el-Hakim
1009 - Destruction of Church of Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem
1055 - Almoravid (al-Murabitun) movement gains control over gold trade through capturing Sjilmasa in North and Awdaghust in South
1062 - Famine in North Africa. Fatimid dynasty in decline
1067 - Al Bakri compiles travelers' accounts of Ghana
1070 - Almoravid establishes Marrakesh
1083 - Almoravid conquer all Maghreb west of Algiers
1086 - Almoravid enter Spain
1147 - Almohad take Marrakesh led by Mohammed Ibn Tumart
1171 - Fatimid dynasty rule shrunk to Egypt, and is overthrown by Kurdish Vizier Saladin (Saleh al Din ibn Ayub) who starts Ayubbid dynasty
1212 - Almohad defeated in Spain by Christians. Almohad state collapses into three
1250 - Ayyubid dynasty overthrown by Mamluk troops
1268 - Monastery of Debra Libanos built at Shoa
1269 - Marinid rule Morocco from Fes for two centuries. Hafsids rule Ifriquya until 16th. Century
Early 14th C. - collapse of Mongol Empire
1317 - Dongola Cathedral converted to Mosque
1324 - Mansa Musa Emperor of Mali begins magnificent pilgrimage
1348 - Black Death reaches Maghreb from Sicily and kills over quarter of population of North Africa
late 14th C. - decline of Mali
15th C. - rise of Songhay
1433 - Tuareg capture Timbuktu
1453 - Ottoman Turks take Constantinople
1517 - Ottoman Turks take Egypt from Mamluk rulers
1543 - Ethiopians defeat Muslim army of Kingdom of Adal with help of Portuguese
1591 - Moroccans invade Songhay
1737 - Tuareg seize Timbuktu, capital of old Mali
18th C. - Jihads launched in Futa Jalon
1750 - Fulbe rise up supported by Muslim traders and conquer settled farmers
1808 - All Hausa states under rule of Sokoto Caliphate of Usman dan Fodio