# Calculation: Pen and paper methods

It's useful to be able to work things out with pen and paper when you don't have a calculator.

## Quick tips for tutors

Written methods includes:

- Addition by the standard written method
- Subtraction by counting up and the standard written method
- Multiplication by the lattice and standard written methods
- Division by repeated subtraction, short, long and space-saver methods
- Cross number puzzles and practice exercises