Match ends, England 0, Belgium 1.
England will face Colombia in the last 16 of the World Cup after a spectacular strike by Adnan Januzaj ensured Belgium finished top of Group G.
Gareth Southgate made eight changes from England's win against Panama, while opposite number Roberto Martinez made nine alterations - proving victory was not exactly the top priority as the tournament moves towards the knockout phase.
That was illustrated by a largely mediocre, lifeless encounter in Kaliningrad that was settled by Januzaj's goal six minutes after the break, the former Manchester United attacker cutting inside before curling a left-foot finish high past Jordan Pickford.
England - who desperately missed absent captain and leading World Cup scorer Harry Kane - barely threatened, though Marcus Rashford should have equalised, Belgium keeper Thibaut Courtois touching his effort wide after he ran clear.
Southgate must now reflect on England's first loss at this World Cup as he prepares to face the dangerous Colombians in Moscow on Tuesday at 19:00 BST, while Belgium go to Rostov to play Japan on Monday.
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England can now plot their route ahead
The build-up to this game was played out in the context of who would top the group - with the suggestion finishing second might provide an easier route than winning Group G.
It was clear three points was hardly the top priority for either manager, and the changes occasionally threatened to reduce the game to a farce - the first half ending in a chorus of jeering.
Should England beat Colombia, led by striker Radamel Falcao, there is the prospect of facing either Sweden or Switzerland.
But the South Americans will pose a real threat and only time will tell if England and Southgate will regret not going harder for the greater glory of victory.
England lame without Kane
Southgate kept Kane back for bigger battles ahead - but this laboured, unthreatening defeat him with much food for thought.
Jamie Vardy and Rashford were entrusted with attacking duties. They both worked hard but England's lack of penetration only emphasised their heavy reliance, some would argue over-reliance, on the captain and talisman.
Kane is the tournament's leading scorer with five goals and has not yet been the beneficiary of a reliable supply line, two goals resulting from corners, two from penalties and another a deflection from Ruben Loftus-Cheek's shot to complete his hat-trick in the 6-1 win against Panama.
He is the central figure in England's World Cup ambitions, the leader on and off the pitch and a striker every defence at this tournament would be anxious about facing.
Southgate's reluctance to throw Kane into the action, even when England were losing and posing little danger, was perhaps an even bigger indicator of just how important he feels he will be in the knockout stage.
Vardy and Rashford did their best, and may make contributions further down the line, but toothless England proved here that they simply cannot do without Kane.
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Tough night for England's stand-ins
Southgate gave several members of England's squad who have been on the margins the chance to at least catch his eye.
Eric Dier's importance was emphasised by his selection as captain in the absence of Kane and deputy Jordan Henderson - but this was not a night he will look back on with satisfaction.
Dier struggled, particularly in the first half, looking off the pace and giving away cheap possession. He did nothing to threaten Henderson's status as Southgate's main midfield pivot.
Vardy and Rashford did not do enough to place Raheem Sterling in peril, even though he has gone 22 England games without a goal.
It was also a difficult night for first-choice goalkeeper Pickford, who was largely unemployed in the wins against Tunisia and Panama.
Pickford had only picked the ball out of the net in those games, having no chance with either goal, but here he looked a little ring-rusty and was fortunate to get away with spilling the ball early on when Gary Cahill cleared Michy Batshuayi's shot off the line.
It was his busiest game in the World Cup so far - and Southgate must hope he will be better for the experience.
Cahill was solid, while Danny Rose and Trent Alexander-Arnold showed Southgate can rely on them - but England's first-choice World Cup line-up will still have a familiar look against Colombia.
Martinez's Belgium a huge threat
Martinez made the bizarre, although some would say brutally realistic, claim before kick-off that winning was not his priority in this final group match.
However, he did get the victory to top the group and face Japan in the last 16, and some of the flashes from his team demonstrated the strength he has at his disposal.
This was a Belgium side without Romelu Lukaku, Eden Hazard, Kevin de Bruyne, Toby Alderweireld, Jan Vertonghen, Axel Witsel and Dries Mertens, to name but seven, in their starting line-up.
And yet, when they actually wanted to, they raised their game to a level beyond England.
If Martinez can bring this squad to the right pitch at the right time, this is potentially a World Cup-winning side.
Learned a lot from the game - Southgate
England manager Gareth Southgate: "I thought the game was a really good test for us. We knew the level was going to be higher than we've had even with teams making changes. Belgium had controlled possession in our back third and we found it tough to press, but in terms of chances, we were fairly even.
"I think we've learned a lot from the game. It will be a good game to go and review. The objective was a mid-term one. We've got everybody time on the pitch and they're ready to come in, those that hadn't previously played, and we've protected those who had."
Belgium head coach Roberto Martinez: "We want everyone in Belgium to be very, very proud of this team. Every player is looking forward to being on the pitch and we looking forward to facing anyone in front of us."
Man of the match - Trent Alexander-Arnold (England)
Off-target England - the stats
- Belgium have now won their past seven World Cup group stage games. They had won just eight of their previous 24 at this stage of the competition.
- Belgium have won all three of their group stage games in consecutive World Cup appearances, the first nation to do so since both Argentina and the Netherlands in 2010 and 2014.
- Belgium are just the third team to have a 100% win ratio at this World Cup, after Uruguay and Croatia.
- This is the first World Cup match that England failed to score in that didn't finish 0-0 since losing 1-0 against Portugal in 1986.
- England had 11 shots in this match but failed to score. They also had 11 shots in their previous match against Panama, scoring six times.
- Adnan Januzaj's goal was his first for Belgium in his ninth appearance for the national side.
- Danny Welbeck's appearance from the bench means that England have used all 20 outfield players in the 2018 World Cup.
- 5StonesSubstituted forMaguireat 45'minutes
- 22Alexander-ArnoldSubstituted forWelbeckat 79'minutes
- 23DendonckerBooked at 33mins
- 3VermaelenSubstituted forKompanyat 74'minutes
- 17TielemansBooked at 19mins
- 16T Hazard
- 18JanuzajSubstituted forMertensat 86'minutes
- 7De Bruyne
- 10E Hazard
- Damir Skomina
- Shots on Target
Second Half ends, England 0, Belgium 1.
Attempt missed. Marouane Fellaini (Belgium) left footed shot from the left side of the box is close, but misses to the left. Assisted by Thorgan Hazard.
Foul by Dries Mertens (Belgium).
Jordan Pickford (England) wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Youri Tielemans (Belgium) wins a free kick on the right wing.
Foul by Eric Dier (England).
Foul by Dedryck Boyata (Belgium).
Ruben Loftus-Cheek (England) wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Attempt blocked. Thorgan Hazard (Belgium) right footed shot from the left side of the box is blocked. Assisted by Marouane Fellaini.
Attempt saved. Dries Mertens (Belgium) right footed shot from outside the box is saved in the top centre of the goal. Assisted by Youri Tielemans.
Attempt missed. Danny Welbeck (England) right footed shot from a difficult angle on the left misses to the left. Assisted by Danny Rose following a set piece situation.
Foul by Leander Dendoncker (Belgium).
Danny Rose (England) wins a free kick on the left wing.
Youri Tielemans (Belgium) wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Foul by Danny Rose (England).
Foul by Marouane Fellaini (Belgium).
Phil Jones (England) wins a free kick in the defensive half.
Substitution, Belgium. Dries Mertens replaces Adnan Januzaj.
Corner, England. Conceded by Marouane Fellaini.