Defender Thiago Silva will miss Tuesday's World Cup semi-final against Germany after Brazil failed in their bid to have his yellow card overturned.
The Brazil captain, 29, was booked in Friday's win against Colombia.
It was Silva's second yellow of the tournament, meaning he is automatically suspended for one match.
The Brazilian football confederation wanted the second caution rescinded but Fifa said there is "no legal basis" to grant such a request.
Silva was booked for blocking Colombia goalkeeper David Ospina's attempt to take a kick.
He had scored the opener as Brazil won 2-1 to progress to the last four.
Silva's defensive partner, David Luiz, will captain the side in his absence.
The tournament hosts are already without their star forward Neymar for the rest of the World Cup after he fractured a vertebra in his spine against Colombia.
Willian is expected to replace Neymar, although the Chelsea attacker did give Brazil a scare when he suffered a back injury in training.
"I was hurt on my left side," the former Shakhtar Donetsk player said. "It bothers me a bit but it is not significant. I am available to play."