A stoppage-time equaliser from Coventry defender Richard Wood denied Leeds a place back in the top six.
Leeds went ahead midway through the first half when Darren O'Dea fired home an angled shot.
The hosts came close to going 2-0 up when Ross McCormack missed from six yards before Coventry keeper Joe Murphy saved from Danny Pugh and Adam Clayton.
The Sky Blues made them pay when Paul Rachubka fumbled a Cyrus Christie cross and Wood pounced to score.
Leeds almost took a sixth-minute lead when Robert Snodgrass curled a cross into the path of McCormack, who headed narrowly over the crossbar.
The goal arrived in the 26th-minute when Paul Connolly's cross was deflected to the left side of the penalty area and centre-half O'Dea slotted a fine finish into the corner.
Scottish striker McCormack spurned a gilt-edged chance in the 41st-minute when lifting the ball over the crossbar following excellent work by Andy Keogh.
After several further near misses from Leeds, Lukas Jutkiewicz almost equalised for the visitors with a fine header.
And deep into added time, Wood latched onto Rachubka's error to poke the ball home at the far post.