Australia ball-tampering: Michael Vaughan 'pretty sure' it took place during winter Ashes
Former England captain Michael Vaughan is "pretty sure" Australia were ball-tampering during their 4-0 Ashes series victory in the winter.
Australia's Cameron Bancroft admits he tampered with the ball during this week's Test defeat in South Africa.
Captain Steve Smith, who knew about the plan in advance, has been banned for one Test and stood down as skipper of his Indian Premier League team.
However, he insisted it was "the first time this has happened".
Television footage on the third day of Australia's third Test against South Africa in Cape Town showed Bancroft take what he said was yellow tape out of his trouser pocket before rubbing the ball.
After the day's play, Smith admitted the team's "leadership group" had a plan, carried out by Bancroft, to tamper with the ball to "get an advantage".
Vaughan, who captained England to an Ashes series victory in 2005, told BBC Sport: "I cannot think that has been come up with over lunch in Cape Town.
"I look at the amount of tape some of the fielders have worn, particularly during the Ashes series at mid-on and mid-off. You don't have to name names, they know who they are.
"I am pretty sure it was going on throughout the Ashes series - but it was not the reason England lost 4-0. They still would have lost the series."
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He added: "I played cricket for 17 years and there was not a team I played in that did not come close to the line.
"There were many tricks teams would use out in the middle. You would see the ball get bounced into the rough to create reverse swing, you see sweets in the mouth, you see saliva put on the ball to keep the shine on it for longer.
"Is that right? Many will say not, but that is what has happened on the game of cricket for many years and will continue to happen. It is very hard to control.
"One unwritten rule is that you do not take an object out there to tamper with the ball. I am pretty sure the Australians and the players involved in that leadership group will face the consequences."
Vaughan is not the only former international cricketer to have his suspicions, with former South Africa fast bowler Fanie de Villiers saying he told camera operators to keep an eye on the Australians in the field while commentating in Cape Town.
"I said earlier on, that if they could get reverse swing in the 26th, 27th, 28th over then they are doing something different from what everyone else does," De Villiers told RSN Radio.
"We actually said to our cameramen: 'Go out (and) have a look, boys. They're using something.'
"They searched for an hour and a half until they saw something and then they started following Bancroft and they actually caught him."
'Australia have identity problem'
Australia's series in South Africa has been marred by controversy.
After the first Test, Australia vice-captain David Warner was fined for misconduct after video footage appeared to show him having to be restrained by team-mates during an altercation with South Africa wicketkeeper Quinton de Kock. De Kock contested his charge but was also fined by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
Australia coach Darren Lehmann also criticised the "disgraceful" verbal abuse towards his players from the South African crowd at Newlands during the third Test, and Cricket Australia sent a letter of complaint to Cricket South Africa.
Vaughan said: "This Australian side, for two or three years, have not behaved in a fashion that you want to be around. They have been abusive at times and got away with it.
"There are many players that I know who have come to me and said, 'x and y has been said'. I have not been able to take their word because I have not had the evidence.
"I now look back on those conversations and think they are spot on. It has all come true to light over the past few days.
"This Australia team has got a huge identity problem. They are very self righteous - they have been for a while.
"They talk the game they feel should be played - and then deliver what we saw in Cape Town."
Some have failed our culture - Waugh
Former Australia captain Steve Waugh has been "deeply troubled" by events in Cape Town and believes the country's 'Spirit of Cricket' document needs to be revisited.
Waugh has previously said Warner "crossed the line" with comments about Jonathan Trott's performance in the 2013-14 Ashes series, prior to the former England batsman returning home with a stress-related condition.
"The Australian cricket team has always believed it could win in any situation against any opposition, by playing combative, skilful and fair cricket, driven by our pride in the fabled baggy green," said Waugh.
"I have no doubt the current Australian team continues to believe in this mantra, however some have now failed our culture, making a serious error of judgement in the Cape Town Test match.
"In 2003, we modified the 'Spirit of Cricket' document originally created by the MCC, to empower our players to set their own standards and commit to play the Australian way.
"We must urgently revisit this document, re-bind our players to it and ensure the spirit in which we play is safe-guarded for the future of the sport."
Cricket Australia is carrying out its own investigation into the ball-tampering controversy before deciding what action to take against those involved.
Waugh, who played 168 Tests between 1985 and 2004, added: "A focused and balanced perspective is needed in the condemnation on those involved in this, with a clear and critical consideration to the social impact and mental health of all players.
"I will support all positive action to ensure an outcome for the betterment of the game, regaining the trust and faith of every fan of cricket."
Meanwhile, opener Matt Renshaw has been added to the Australia squad for the fourth and final Test of the series in South Africa, with the hosts 2-1 up.
What has happened?
In a news conference, 25-year-old Bancroft says he has been charged with attempting to change the condition of the ball.
Smith says the team's "leadership group" had spoken about it and "thought it was a way to get an advantage". He describes it as a "big mistake" but adds he will not stand down as captain.
Smith, 28, is banned for one match and fined his entire match fee by the ICC. Bancroft is fined 75% of his match fee and gets three demerit points.
Australia lose 10 wickets in the final session of day four to lose the third Test in Cape Town by 322 runs.
Smith steps down as captain of Rajasthan Royals so the team can prepare for the IPL "without the ongoing distractions".
Jim Maxwell, Australian Broadcasting Corporation commentator on BBC Radio 5 live
Smith is a good bloke, a fine cricketer - but he is a bit immature and naive.
He might have been led into something he should not have been thinking about and should have had more control as captain. It is going to cost him dearly. The psychological scars, these things never really go away.
I am sure Smith will lose the captaincy, as will vice-captain [David] Warner. They will cop a suspension for a match or two.
I am not sure where [coach] Darren Lehmann fits into this - but his numbers are marked.
I sat in on the press conference and had been brewing on it over night. When I sat there and started talking about the game, it hit me it was not right. It was such a hollow feeling at the game.
The crowd were quiet. There had been a few boos when the Aussies came on to the field, it felt like I was at a funeral rather than a celebration of cricket.