James Anderson surpassed Sir Ian Botham as England's highest Test wicket-taker with his 384th dismissal in his 100th match.
Anderson, 32, had West Indies' Denesh Ramdin caught at first slip on the final day of the first Test in Antigua.
The seamer, who began the Test on 380 wickets, was mobbed by his team-mates as his family celebrated in the crowd.
Ramdin's departure left West Indies 294-7, but Jason Holder's unbeaten 103 helped them secure a draw.
Lancashire's Anderson, who made his Test debut in 2003, has helped England win three Ashes series and rise to the top of the Test rankings in 2011.
How Anderson made history...
All-rounder Botham took 383 wickets in 102 Tests between 1977 and 1992, as well as scoring 5,200 runs at an average of 33.54.
Anderson bettered Botham's tally in two matches fewer as England pressed for victory at the Sir Vivian Richards Stadium in the first Test of the three-match series.
Having taken two wickets in the first innings, he had Marlon Samuels taken at gully midway through the morning session to move level with Botham.
But he had to wait until an hour of play remained before he located Ramdin's edge, removing the West Indies captain for 57 courtesy of a smart catch by Alastair Cook and ending a seventh-wicket stand of 105.
|England's top Test wicket-takers|
Reaction to a record-breaker
Anderson said: "Taking over from an English legend is a hugely proud moment for me.
"I love taking wickets for England. You pick up milestones along the way and it was a huge landmark for me picking up 100 Tests this week."
Botham, commentating on Sky Sports, said: "I couldn't be happier. I've enjoyed watching him bowl; he richly deserves it.
"He's a magnificent performer. When you are a swing bowler you've got to learn how to do it, and the ball he got the wicket with was a terrific delivery."
Asked how many wickets Anderson could take before retiring, Botham said: "He can do 450 easily."
Former England captain Michael Vaughan told Test Match Special: "What a bowler Jimmy Anderson has been for England - a joy to watch throughout the years."
Former England all-rounder and Lancashire team-mate Andrew Flintoff told BBC Sport before Anderson broke the record: "He's an England great at the minute. However, he could play for another three years and end up being one of the world's great Test cricketers."
Ex-England pace bowler Darren Gough, who took 229 Test wickets, said: "Well done Jimmy. Truly deserved, a genius."
Former England wicketkeeper Alec Stewart said: "Huge congratulations to Jimmy on becoming England's leading Test wicket taker. Brilliant achievement. Next target 500 wickets please."
The road to the record - Anderson's greatest moments
2003, Lord's: Five wickets on his Test debut against Zimbabwe at the age of 20.
2008, Wellington: Breakthrough five-wicket haul against New Zealand after years of inconsistency and injury.
2010, Trent Bridge: Career-best figures of 11-71 as England destroyed Pakistan in the first Test at Trent Bridge.
2010-11, Adelaide: Anderson removed Ricky Ponting and Michael Clarke in his first two overs of the game as England thrashed Australia on the way to a 3-1 Ashes triumph.
2013, Trent Bridge: Anderson completes a 10-wicket haul as England win a nail-biting Ashes opener at Trent Bridge by 14 runs.
Quite handy for a number 11 batsman...
In 2009, England's final pair James Anderson and Monty Panesar defied Australia for 40 minutes to clinch a draw with Australia in the first Ashes Test at Cardiff. Anderson survived 53 deliveries and Panesar 35.
And five years later against India, Anderson and Joe Root shared the highest last-wicket stand in Test history, with Anderson scoring 81 - his first half-century in any form of cricket.