Jonathan Trott has failed to recover from his shoulder injury and has been replaced by Ravi Bopara for the third Test against India.
Trott injured himself diving in the field during the that put England 2-0 up in the four-Test series.
Chris Tremlett missed that game through injury but is named in the squad.
Steven Finn completes the 13-man party for the game, which starts at Edgbaston on Wednesday.
Bopara has averaged 37.65 in first-class cricket in 2011, scoring three centuries for Essex. This week he scored 19 and 25 playing against Sri Lanka A for the England Lions at Scarborough.
He last played a Test for England against Australia at Headingley in 2009.
A win for England will clinch the series and lift them to the number one spot in the ICC Test rankings.
Finn, 22, has been named as cover for Tremlett, who is expected to be fit after suffering hamstring trouble and back spasms.
Tim Bresnan replaced Tremlett at Trent Bridge and took five wickets in the second innings, having also scored 90 in England's crushing win.
National selector Geoff Miller said: "Ravi Bopara comes in for Jonathan Trott, who is continuing his rehabilitation from his shoulder injury.
"Chris Tremlett is recovering well from the back spasms that ruled him out of the second Test - and although we are expecting him to be fully fit ahead of Wednesday, we felt it was prudent to include an extra seam bowler at this stage.
"That means Steven Finn comes into the squad. We have seen some very pleasing performances during the first two npower Test matches.
"But there is still plenty more to do in this series, and the squad and management will be determined to carry the momentum from recent weeks through to the remaining two Tests and push for a comprehensive series victory."
India have recalled Rahul Dravid for the one-day and Twenty20 series against England, which starts with a Twenty20 match on 31 August at Old Trafford.
Dravid has played 339 ODIs for India, but his last match was against West Indies in September 2009.
The injured duo of Harbhajan Singh and Yuvraj Singh are not part of India's 16-man squad which will play five ODIs after the Twenty20 match.
England Test squad: Andrew Strauss (captain), Jimmy Anderson, Ian Bell, Ravi Bopara, Tim Bresnan, Stuart Broad, Alastair Cook, Steven Finn, Eoin Morgan, Kevin Pietersen, Matt Prior, Graeme Swann, Chris Tremlett.
India one-day squad: Sachin Tendulkar, Virender Sehwag, Gautam Gambhir, Virat Kohli, Suresh Raina, Rohit Sharma, Mahendra Dhoni (capt & wk), Rahul Dravid, Parthiv Patel, Amit Mishra, Ravichandran Ashwin, Zaheer Khan, Praveen Kumar, Ishant Sharma, Vinay Kumar, Munaf Patel.