Marathon world record holder Brigid Kosgei is one of five finalists for the Female World Athlete 2019 award.
Last month the Kenyan broke Briton Paula Radcliffe's 16-year-old world record, running a time of 2hrs 14mins 04secs to win the Chicago Marathon.
Kosgei, 25, also became the youngest winner of the London marathon in April.
American Dalilah Muhammad, Jamaican Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, Venezuelan Yulimar Rojas and the Netherlands' Sifan Hassan are also up for the award.
Sprinter Fraser-Pryce won the world 100m and 4x100m titles in world-leading times of 10.71 and 41.44 in Doha, while Hassan broke the world mile record with a time of 4:12:33 in Monaco.
Triple-jumper Rojas won nine of her 12 competitions, including gold at the World Championships with 15.37m, while Muhammad set a new world record of 52.16 in the 400m hurdles in Doha.
Britain's world heptathlon gold medallist Katarina Johnson-Thompson missed out on the shortlist, having featured among the initial 11 nominees.
The male and female World Athletes of the Year will be announced live on stage at the World Athletics Awards 2019 in Monaco on Saturday 23 November.