China's National Anti-Doping Agency laboratory has been suspended for up to four months by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Wada said the laboratory must take five remedial steps after it was found to have submitted two false negative results during blind tests in October.
If it meets Wada's demands, the ban can be lifted early.
The laboratory has 21 days to appeal against the decision at the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
During the suspension, samples must be transported securely to another Wada-accredited laboratory.
Wada, which is seeking to improve standards following a series of recent doping scandals, last week revoked accreditation from the national laboratories in Moscow and Lisbon.
Russia's athletics federation is currently from international competition after being accused of "state-sponsored" doping.