Research & Development


Radio audiences in the UK are increasingly listening using headphones, and binaural mixes are likely to offer more natural and immersive classical musical experiences than stereo broadcasts. However, the stereo mix is currently a priority for broadcasters, and producers have limited resources to create an additional, binaural mix. This engineering paper describes the semi-automated workflow used to produce binaural mixes of performances from the BBC Proms. Spatial audio mixes were created by repositioning the individual microphone signals from the stereo broadcast in three dimensions, and adding ambient signals captured using a 3D microphone array. A commercial mixing application was used for spatial panning and binaural rendering, and the resulting binaural audio was streamed live online. Comments on the production workflow were collected from the music balancers, and audience responses were surveyed.

This document was originally published at the 144th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society in Milan, Italy, which was held on 23–26 May 2018. It is also available from the AES’s electronic library at

This publication is part of the Immersive and Interactive Content section