BBC R&D has spent a number of years looking at how general purpose computing and networks can change the broadcasting industry with projects such as IP Studio and our Object-based Media Toolkit. We also took a first step into the world of cloud-based production during our Lightweight Live work.

Our cloud-fit production architecture project is building on these foundations, and exploring what a media production system built 'cloud first' should look like.

We aim to answer this question by prototyping a cloud-fit production system and releasing the results of our work as we go.

BBC R&D - IP Studio

BBC R&D - Object-Based Media Toolkit

Why are we doing this?

The BBC is increasingly using Internet Protocol (IP) in its day-to-day business of making content for audiences. Thanks to projects such as IP Studio, we are now starting to use IP technologies (e.g. SMPTE 2110 and NMOS) in production centres (for example the new BBC Wales headquarters). However, the content-making capacity and equipment in these facilities is still mostly fixed during the design and fitout stages, meaning large changes can only occur during a re-fit. The business operating model of a current generation IP facility is also fairly inflexible, with large capital expenditure required upfront.

At the other end of the chain, IP is also becoming increasingly popular as a mechanism to distribute our content, with services such as BBC iPlayer gaining audience share each year. Our current generation of iPlayer makes great use of cloud computing to move files and streams around, but it can't undertake any production operations: content still has to be created using traditional broadcast equipment in a physical production facility.

R&D are working with colleagues from around the BBC to join up these two areas, enabling broadcast centre-style production operations to occur within a software-defined cloud environment. We think the benefits of this will be huge, making our physical IP facilities even more flexible, and enabling us to deploy fully virtualised production systems on demand. Ultimately, this will help the BBC make more efficient use of resources and deliver more content to audiences.

The technical details: what does 'cloud-fit' mean?

In order to join up the worlds of broadcast centre production and the cloud, we need to understand how to take the high-bandwidth point-to-point signals that are used in our physical facilities and turn them into something that works well in a cloud computing environment. We think this requires a complete reinvention of how we handle media: traditional broadcast centres are typically built to move media in a serial manner, yet (broadly speaking) clouds achieve much of their flexibility, scale and resiliency by exploiting parallelism.

We think that a cloud-fit production system should be highly parallel and treat computing, network and storage as abstract, distributed resources. Furthermore, system architects will no longer talk about building and deploying applications or devices, but services. A cloud service is a user-defined, distributed, highly available unit of functionality, that depends on dynamically provisionable underlying cloud components. Each service will provide an API, which we can use to give it production instructions.

Services will not depend on specific instances of an underlying resource (e.g. a particular virtual machine, or a particular IP address), but use abstraction and enapsulation principles such as load balanced APIs and DNS to provide parallel, scalable, and resilient subsystems.

Going even further, serverless computing might enable us to provide API functionality without having to manage any underlying infrastructure at all (of course in reality the infrastructure still exists, but the cloud provider manages it on our behalf in response to demand).

All of this adds up to something quite different to a conventional broadcast facility, where single instances of processing devices (such as a video encoder) are connected with point-to-point signals (rather than APIs).

Building production capabilities

We are building a system that is service-oriented and composable. Each of our services has a well defined purpose and multiple services collaborate together in order to achieve complete production workflows.


Our core hypothesis is that our system will work best if all media is stored by default: a distributed immutable object store allows us to store and reference small pieces of audio, video and other data. We call these 'media objects'. By passing references to media objects between services we can build complex production functionality in a distributed, scalable and resilient manner.

Bridging the live/stored divide

Storing everything doesn't mean we can't do live production: live simply involves operating at low latency. In our system, live workflows (such as capturing cameras, vision mixing them and delivering the result) will be achieved by using media objects soon after they are stored. We can also force the objects to have a short duration to reduce the latency incurred whilst creating them.

Conventional broadcast centres use very different systems to handle live and stored media. However in our API-driven system, there is no longer a formal distinction between these operating modes: we think our media objects can provide the best of both worlds. This will mean users do not have to decide upfront how they want to use their content, and can benefit from new classes of production tools that straddle live and stored workflows.

Achieving studio quality

In our previous Lightweight Live work, R&D looked at how public cloud computing could support low-cost production use cases, such as processing low-bitrate mobile phone footage from a remote location. In our cloud-fit production architecture work, we want to prove we can build a general-purpose system that can also handle studio quality uncompressed video. In order to achieve this, R&D is investigating how we can use on-premise private cloud solutions to provide the bandwidth and edge connectivity we'll need.

BBC R&D - IP Studio: Lightweight Live

BBC R&D - Our Vision of the Future

We don't think cloud-fit production is just about making low quality web video: it is about understanding how we can design future facilities, and increase our existing production capability with commodity cloud services.

Common data models

Cloud-fit production architecture is just one part of BBC R&D's work on the broadcast industry IP transition. Our vision is a future in which IP technology can seamlessly join up resouces in broadcast centres, the cloud, and audience devices. To do this, we think it is vital to define common data models for content and production systems.

Our aim is to provide abstract ways of identifying pieces of media, as well as their relationship to time and to each other, independent of the implementation details of the systems used to manipulate and process them.

Outputs: Sharing as we go...

As well as working within the BBC, we want to share our research externally in order to contribute to wider broadcast industry discussions about cloud computing.

We've released some of the first low level building blocks of our work, as open source software:


We will also be publishing as much as we can in blogs and papers.

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BBC R&D - Cloud-Fit Production Update: Ingesting Video 'as a Service'

BBC R&D - Tooling Up: How to Build a Software-Defined Production Centre

BBC R&D - Beyond Streams and Files - Storing Frames in the Cloud

BBC R&D - Storing Frames in the Cloud part 2: Getting them back out again

BBC R&D - Storing Frames in the Cloud Part 3: An Experimental Media Object Store

BBC R&D - High Speed Networking: Open Sourcing our Kernel Bypass Work

BBC R&D - IP Studio

BBC R&D - IP Studio: Lightweight Live

BBC R&D - IP Studio: 2017 in Review - 2016 in Review

BBC R&D - IP Studio Update: Partners and Video Production in the Cloud

IBC 365 - Production and post prepare for next phase of cloud-fit technology

BBC R&D - Running an IP Studio

BBC R&D - Building a Live Television Video Mixing Application for the Browser

BBC R&D - Nearly Live Production

BBC R&D - Discovery and Registration in IP Studio

BBC R&D - Media Synchronisation in the IP Studio

AMWA - Advanced Media Workflow Association

BBC R&D - Industry Workshop on Professional Networked Media

NMOS - Networked Media Open Specifications

BBC R&D - The IP Studio

BBC R&D - IP Studio at the UK Network Operators Forum

BBC R&D - Industry Workshop on Professional Networked Media

BBC R&D - Covering the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games using IP Studio

BBC R&D - Investigating the IP future for BBC Northern Ireland

This project is part of the Automated Production and Media Management section

This project is part of the End-to-End IP Broadcasting work stream


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