Will Istanbul's Syria conference be any different?
President Erdogan is hosting a summit with Russian, French and German leaders to discuss the war in Syria. Neither the US or the UN are involved. Joshua Landis is Director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Oklahoma.
Picture: Two men ride a motorcycle by the entrance of Zamalka town, Eastern Ghouta, in the countryside of Damascus, April 2018. Credit: EPA/Youssef Badawi