In response to Charles' religious reforms Archibald Johnstone of Wariston and Alexander Henderson draft the National Covenant - a new Presbyterian agreement between God and the Scottish people. Within days thousands of common people have signed it.
Charles marches a make-shift army north. The Covenanter army seizes Newcastle cutting supplies of coal to London. Charles is forced to negotiate with the Scots and agrees to pay their large expenses. To finance the settlement he is forced to call his first Parliament in eleven years.
The fractious relationship between Charles and his English Parliament erupts into conflict as both sides raise armies. Charles raises his standard at Nottingham. The English Parliament negotiates to gain the support of the Covenanters.
Fearing capture by the English forces Charles surrenders to the Covenanters at Newark. He is taken to Newcastle and the Covenanters try to persuade him to sign the National Covenant. Charles refuses and is handed over to the English Parliament.
The arrival of Charles II prompts Cromwell's forces to invade Scotland. Defeat at Dunbar sees Scotland conquered and incorporated into Cromwell's Protectorate state. Thousands of Scots are transported as slaves to the colonies.
After the death of Cromwell, the Protectorate regime collapsed and amid wild popular jubilation Charles II was confirmed as King of England, Ireland and Scotland. Charles, however, was rumoured to be a Catholic, and supported the Anglican policies of his father.
William lands a large Dutch force in Brixham, Devon. Defeated and captured, James VII is allowed to escape to France. Parliament states that with this act James has abdicated and William and his Stuart wife, Mary, are declared King and Queen. The Scots are not consulted.