China has held a lavish parade to mark the defeat of Japan in World War Two.
In a speech President Xi Jinping paid tribute to "the Chinese people who fought hard and defeated aggression".
The two countries have had a difficult relationship over the years, which worsened after Japan launched a full-scale invasion of China in 1937.
More than 30 foreign government officials attended the event but Japan's Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, stayed away.
China's People's Liberation Army is the world's largest military, with 2.3 million members
During World War Two Beijing say the fighting claimed 14 million Chinese lives.
Some 12,000 troops and 200 aircraft, as well as tanks and missiles, were part of the display in Tiananmen Square marking the end of war 70 years ago.
China's President Xi Jinping inspected the troops after his speech
Military helicopters formed the number 70 to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War Two in Asia
Shore-to-ship missiles were on display in the parade
Some 12,000 military personnel and 200 aircraft took part in the huge display in Beijing
People's Liberation Army war veterans took part in the parade
Military aircraft performed fly-bys with colourful trails to symbolise China's bright future, television commentators said
A large area around Tiananmen Square was blocked off for the parade, and Beijing residents gathered around the parade to watch