The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds says extracting natural gas using a technique called fracking could devastate important populations of geese and swans.
The birds feed at a protected site in Lancashire, which is just a mile from where the fracking could take place.
The RSPB has lodged a formal objection to plans to frack there, as well as at another site in Sussex.
But the company carrying out the drilling say it's activities will not harm birds or other wildlife.
Hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", is a technique used to get a type of gas found deep underground in shale rock.
Shale gas is trapped inside tiny pockets of rock - which makes it hard to reach.