Six African states invest heavily in spying - report
BBC Focus on Africa radio
African countries are investing heavily in the latest surveillance technology to spy on activists, business competitors, journalists, and other governments, a new report says.
The Institute of Development Studies, which published the report, identified Nigeria as the biggest spender, with more than $127m (£92m) invested in surveillance-related activities and equipment in 2017.
Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, and Sudan have also made significant
investments on surveillance technology, the report said.
signal interception, citizens surveillance, and internet eavesdropping often
happen despite laws granting the right to privacy of communication and
correspondence, it added.
rights in Africa are very well guaranteed in most countries," Tony
Roberts, one of the co-authors of the study, told BBC Focus on Africa radio's Bola Mosuro.
"However, using this surveillance technology, governments are
violating those rights," he added.
security and economic interests are cited as the most frequent justifications
used by the governments to stretch their surveillance power, often in breach of
the rights to privacy of private citizens and civil society organisations.
is named as one of the countries with the weakest privacy protection laws.
Without an independent oversight body, the state is the only "judge, jury and
regulator" says the report.
get governments to value and respect the legislation that does exist. It's important that the public are aware of the rights that they have," Mr Roberts said.
No end to Libya strife 10 years after Gaddafi's killing
BBC North Africa correspondent
Getty ImagesCopyright: Getty Images
It is 10 years since the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, was killed by rebels during an armed revolt.
In the unrest which has beset the country since his downfall, Libya has staged two parliamentary elections, the second of which in 2014 left the country split, with rival centres of power in Benghazi in the East and Tripoli in the West.
Libya is expected to hold more elections in December, though few believe they will go ahead.
Libyans do not publicly mark the day of Colonel Gaddafi's death. His violent killing at the hands of rebels who captured him as he tried to flee was a sign of what was to come.
Wars fuelled by competing powers inside and outside Libya tore the land and its people apart.
Though there are many Libyans who continue to strive for the stability and freedoms they hoped would come 10 years ago with the overthrow of a dictator, there are many today who are nostalgic for what they now see as an era of security and peace under Gaddafi's harsh rule.
EU calls on Tunisian president to reopen parliament
The European Union has called on Tunisian President Kais
Saied to restore democratic order in the country and reopen parliament.
EU foreign policy chief Joseph Borrell told EU lawmakers
during a parliamentary session that the Tunisian parliament “cannot stay closed
Mr Borrell urged the
Tunisian president to set a clear timetable for the reopening of parliament.
"It is crucial for
the future of the country and for its domestic and international credibility
that the president and the Tunisian authorities at all levels fully restore the
constitutional and institutional order, including the activities of the parliament,” he said.
suspended parliament in July and fired the prime minister in what his
opponents said was a coup. He however
enjoys the support of many Tunisians.
Prime Minister Najla Bouden, whom Mr Saied appointed last month, announced a
new cabinet – which has 10 women including the prime minister.
Egypt swears in nearly 100 women judges in a first
Egypt has appointed 98 women as judges in one of the country’s main judicial bodies – the State Council.
The judges were sworn in before the council's chief judge in an event in the capital Cairo on Tuesday.
It comes months after President Abdul Fattah al-Sisi called for women to join the country's two main judicial bodies - the council and the Public Prosecution.
Since its inception in 1946, the State Council has been exclusively male and until now actively rejected female applicants.
In past years, women have opposed the decisions of the council, arguing that they were discriminated against.