The Trump administration has laid out plans to boost US defence spending by $54bn (£44bn) while slashing funding for foreign aid.
The federal government budget plan will be submitted to Congress on Thursday.
The state department, which oversees foreign affairs, faces a budget cut of about 28%.
And the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in line for cuts to programmes President Trump does not agree with, such as climate change and renewables.
These include initiatives intended to bring the US into line with its Paris Agreement climate deal obligations.
The EPA could be cut by 31%, the New York Times reported.
The increase in defence spending will be recouped through deep cuts elsewhere, the BBC understands.
The defence department budget will be boosted by 10%, and homeland security will get a 6% boost.
The budget will include a $1.5bn request for pilot schemes to determine construction methods and locations for Mr Trump's promised wall between the US and Mexico.
The White House wants a 30% cut from an energy department office that promotes energy efficiency and renewable energy.
The energy department could see steep cuts for its 17 national laboratories, which conduct research into subjects including nuclear power and advanced materials for energy generation, storage and use.
There will also be a complete cut to funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, the largest source of public broadcasting funding in the US.
The budget, known as a "skinny budget", will be limited to the $1tn portion of the $4tn annual federal budget that pays for US agencies and departments.
The remainder of Mr Trump's budget, which will include proposals on taxes, mandatory spending and deficits and projections on the economy, will not come out until May.