Federal prosecutors in the US have charged a former Washington DC primary school teacher with production and possession of child pornography.
Eric Justin Toth, 31, had been arrested in Nicaragua last weekend and quickly deported to the US.
He had replaced Osama Bin Laden on the FBI's top 10 most wanted list in April 2012.
He had been on the run since 2008, when another teacher found child pornography on a camera he had used at the school.
Mr Toth made an initial appearance at a court in Washington on Tuesday wearing a blue jail jumpsuit.
The judge ordered that he be held without bond until a further hearing in May.
The FBI said Mr Toth had been arrested on Saturday in Nicaragua, near the Honduran border.
He was living under an assumed name.
It is not clear how long he had been in Nicaragua.
Mr Toth had been a teacher at the exclusive Beauvoir school in Washington DC for about three years.
Among other offences, he was accused of putting a camera in a boys' toilet.
After his indictment the FBI followed him through Illinois, Indiana and out west to Arizona, but the trail ran cold.
In a notice on the top 10 list, the FBI described him as "a computer expert" with "above-average knowledge regarding computers, the use of the Internet, and security awareness".