Private broadcasting has flourished. The government operates radio and TV services and publishes a Nepali-language daily and an English-language paper.
Radio is a key news source and there are few barriers to setting up an outlet, says US-based NGO Freedom House. There are around 250 community stations.
Covering demonstrations can be dangerous for Nepalese journalists, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF) in its 2016 World Press Freedom Index.
There is a small film industry, nicknamed "Kollywood". Indian films are staple fare in cinemas.
BBC World Service broadcasts on 103 FM in Kathmandu.
There were around 5 million internet users by 2016 (Internetlivestats.com). Facebook is a popular platform and the use of Twitter is on the rise. Prominent bloggers write about political issues.
RSF says a 2016 directive allows the authorities to block online content deemed to be immoral or misleading.
- The Kathmandu Post - private, English-language daily
- The Rising Nepal - semi-official English-language daily
- Gorkhapatra - semi-official daily, Nepal's oldest newspaper
- Kantipur - daily, one of the first private newspapers
- Annapurna Post - daily
- The Himalayan Times - English-language
- The Nepali Times - English-language weekly
- Republica - private, English-language daily