Middle East

Jordan country profile

Map of Jordan

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country with few natural resources, but it has played a pivotal role in the struggle for power in the Middle East.

Jordan's significance results partly from its strategic location at the crossroads of what Christians, Jews and Muslims call the Holy Land.

It is a key ally of the United States and, together with Egypt, one of only two Arab nations to have made peace with Israel.

The desert kingdom emerged out of the post-First World War division of the Middle East by Britain and France.

FACTS

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Capital: Amman

  • Population 6.5 million

  • Area 89,342 sq km (34,492 sq miles)

  • Major language Arabic

  • Major religion Islam

  • Life expectancy 72 years (men), 75 years

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LEADERS

Head of state: King Abdullah II

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King Abdullah II, Jordan's monarch since 1999, has extensive powers. He appoints governments, approves legislation, and can dissolve parliament.

Over the past few years he has been facing growing demands for political reform, especially in the wake of the popular uprising in Tunisia that led to political turmoil in many Arab countries after 2011, King Abdullah dismissed his government at the time and appointed the first of a series of prime ministers to oversee the introduction of political change, but concerns over the cost of living and income tax reform have led to regular street protests.

MEDIA

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The Jordanian media have traditionally been under tight state control.

"Veneration for the monarchy, religion, but also state institutions and the men who head them are all 'red lines' that journalists must not cross," said Reporters Without Borders in its 2011-12 country report.

Jordan Media City - one of the first such ventures in the region - aims to attract media investments and operates as a regional hub for satellite TV broadcasts.

TIMELINE

Some key dates in Jordan's history:

1946 - The United Nations recognizes Jordan as an independent sovereign kingdom.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Jordan's cultural heritage, such as the rock city of Petra, is popular with tourists

1948 - State of Israel created in British-mandate Palestine. Thousands of Palestinians flee Arab-Israeli fighting to West Bank and Jordan.

1950 - Jordan annexes West Bank.

1951 - King Abdullah assassinated by Palestinian gunman angry at his apparent collusion with Israel in the division of Palestine.

1952 - Hussein proclaimed king after his father, Talal, is declared mentally unfit to rule.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption King Hussein - pictured here with Queen Noor - ruled Jordan for 46 years between 1953 and 1999

1957 - British troops complete their withdrawal from Jordan.

1967 - Israel takes control of Jerusalem and the West Bank during Six-Day War, leading to major influx of refugees into Jordan.

1970-71 - Jordan expels Palestinian Liberation Organisation armed camps from the country n Black September conflict.

1994 - Jordan signs peace treaty with Israel, ending 46-year official state of war.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption A Bedouin guide looks over the desert of Wadi Rum in Jordan

1999 - King Hussein dies. His eldest son Crown Prince Abdullah succeeds to the throne.

2011 - Political turmoil in Arab countries reflected in street protests over political reform and the cost of living.

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