Middle East

Iraq country profile

Map of Iraq

Iraq, which occupies an area once home to some of the earliest known civilisations, has been a battleground for competing forces since the US-led ouster of President Saddam Hussein in 2003.

The mainly Shia-led governments that have held power since have struggled to maintain order, and the country has enjoyed only brief periods of respite from high levels of sectarian violence.

Instability and sabotage have hindered efforts to rebuild an economy shattered by decades of conflict and sanctions, even though Iraq has the world's second-largest reserves of crude oil.

FACTS

Republic of Iraq

Capital: Baghdad

  • Population 37 million

  • Area 438,317 sq km (169,235 sq miles)

  • Major languages Arabic, Kurdish

  • Major religion Islam

  • Life expectancy 68 years (men), 73 years (women)

  • Currency Iraqi dinar

Getty Images

LEADERS

President: Barham Salih

Image copyright Haydar Karaalp/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
Image caption Barham Salih has been a leading Kurdish politician for decades

Veteran Iraqi Kurdish politician Barham Salih was elected by parliament in October 2018 to serve the first of a maximum of two four-year terms in the largely ceremonial post.

Under an informal agreement between political parties, the presidency is reserved for Kurds, the premiership for Shia Arabs, and the post of speaker of parliament for Sunni Arabs.

Prime Minister: Adel Abdul Mahdi

Image copyright Mustafa Yalcin/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
Image caption Mr Mahdi previously served as finance and oil minister

Adel Abdul Mahdi comes from a prominent Shia political family, and spent much of his life in exile in France.

He abandoned Marxism for a pro-Iranian orientation in the 1980s, and became leading figure in the Shia Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq party after the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003.

He served as finance minister, oil minister and vice-president in various governments, and was nominated for the premiership by the Shia majority in parliament.

He faces the task of rebuilding the country after years the defeat of the Islamic State jihadist group, finding consensus with independence-minded Kurdish parties, and balancing rival US and Iranian influences.

MEDIA

Image copyright Getty Images

There are hundreds of publications and scores of radio and TV stations. But political and security crises have resulted in an increasingly fractured media scene.

Television is the main medium for news. Many media outlets have political or religious affiliations.

TIMELINE

Some key dates in Iraq's history:

1534-1918 - Ottoman rule.

1917 - Britain seizes control, creates state of Iraq.

1932 - Independence, followed by frequent coups.

1979 - Saddam Hussein becomes president.

1980-1988 - Iran-Iraq war.

1990 - Iraq invades Kuwait, putting it on a collision course with the international community.

2003 - US-led coalition invades, starting years of guerrilla warfare and instability.

2014 - The armed Islamic State group emerges as a major force in the region and seizes large parts of Iraq, which it holds until a government offensive drives it out in 2017.

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption US marines toppled the statue of Saddam Hussein shortly after the invasion in 2003. Years of instability followed

Related Topics

Around the BBC

Related Internet links

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites