Latin America & Caribbean

Coronavirus: What are the numbers out of Latin America?

Brazilian soldiers in protective suits prepare to disinfect a public shelter in Rio de Janeiro. Photo: May 2020 Image copyright AFP/Getty Images

Coronavirus cases have been rising sharply in many Latin American countries and health authorities there say it's now the epicentre of the global pandemic.

Brazil has had more than 610,000 confirmed cases - the second highest in the world.

Other countries in the region, including Mexico, Chile and Peru, are also struggling to contain major outbreaks.

With new confirmed cases in the US plateauing and many European countries reporting declining numbers, what are the trends in Latin America?

The first confirmed case in Latin America was identified in Brazil on 26 February, although researchers have said there are indications that there were cases there as early as January.

Coronavirus has since spread to every country in the region.

More than 1,190,000 cases have been recorded, and more than 60,000 people have died, according to the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.

This is fewer cases and deaths than in Europe and the US, but testing is nowhere near as widespread and deaths may be under-reported.

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Confirmed cases around the world

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Source: Johns Hopkins University, national public health agencies

Figures last updated 6 June 2020, 16:35 BST

Latin America's two most populous nations, Brazil and Mexico, have seen the highest number of deaths, more than 34,000 and 12,000 respectively.

Peru has the 10th highest number of reported cases in the world, and around 5,000 confirmed deaths.

And researchers say these countries could be significantly under-reporting deaths, with many cases going undiagnosed.

Chile is reporting thousands of new coronavirus cases each day, with more than 1,300 people dead.

Ecuador has seen the most deaths per capita in the region - with around 20 per 100,000 people. Daily cases in Ecuador have been stabilising, but this is not the trend in many other countries in the region.

Peak not yet reached

Unlike in the US and most countries in Europe, many countries in Latin America are seeing their daily cases and deaths increase.

Looking at Brazil, Mexico and Peru compared to the worst hit countries in Europe in terms of deaths - the UK, Italy and France - you can see daily deaths are growing in Latin American nations as they drop elsewhere.

The number of deaths in Brazil, Mexico and Peru is doubling roughly every two to three weeks, as opposed to about every three months in the UK, eight months in Italy, and 11 months in France.

Deaths in the US are doubling about every two months.

A study by the University of Washington has warned that the Brazil's death toll could climb to 125,000 by early August - that's almost a four-fold increase from its current recorded tally.

On 22 May, the World Health Organization's emergencies director, Dr Mike Ryan, said: "In a sense, South America has become a new epicentre for the disease."

And the head of the Pan American Health Organization, Dr Carissa Etienne, has since said "there can be no doubt our region has become the epicentre" of the pandemic.

This came as Latin America - including Central America and Mexico - surpassed the US and Europe in reported daily cases.

And experts say the peak of the epidemic in some Latin American countries is still some weeks away.

As daily cases continue to rise, there are concerns that healthcare systems could be overwhelmed, as has already been the case in Ecuador.

Chile's healthcare system is "very close to the limit", according to President Sebastián Piñera.

And Pilar Mazzetti, who is leading of the Peruvian government's coronavirus response, has said: "We're in bad shape. This is war."

What is being done to stop the spread?

Mexico and Brazil have continued to take less severe lockdown measures than other Latin American countries.

Both have given out guidelines, but have not imposed national restrictions.

Brazil's President Jair Bolsonaro has repeatedly downplayed the virus.

Image copyright EPA
Image caption President Bolsonaro still attends rallies with supporters

Marcia Castro, a global health professor at Harvard University, says that "the response in Brazil is far from ideal, and currently there is a lack of a uniform message coming from the leadership at different levels."

Other countries such as Argentina have imposed compulsory lockdowns.

And Prof Castro says it is, along with Uruguay, among the countries in the region for now able to manage the spread.

Peru had one of the first and strictest national lockdowns in the region, but continues to see cases and deaths rise. It has extended its lockdown until the end of June.

As cases rapidly rise in Chile, the government has announced a mandatory lockdown in the capital Santiago.

Chile has one of Latin America's highest rates of testing - around 32 tests per 1,000 people.

But testing across the region is significantly below other parts of the world.

Mexico has carried out around 2 tests per 1,000 people, compared with around 57 per 1,000 in the US.

Brazil also has a low testing rate, and a study by the University of São Paulo Medical School estimates the number of infections could be as much as 15 times higher than the official figure.

President Bolsonaro wants to begin reopening Brazil's borders despite increasing infections, but other Latin American governments have expressed worries that the worsening situation there could have ramifications across the region.

Graphics by Cecilia Tombesi

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