Russia awash with symbols of WW2 victory
Russia is gripped by memories of World War Two on the eve of Victory Day, marking 70 years since Soviet forces and their Western allies defeated Nazi Germany.
Hundreds of thousands of Russians are proudly sporting symbols which honour war veterans and hail their country's military might.
But some of the displays have proved controversial, while others have prompted accusations of trivialising the memory of one of the greatest sacrifices in human history.
There are also fears that war memories are being exploited to justify Russian belligerence towards Ukraine and the West.
The St George's ribbon is by far the most popular symbol of victory displayed by Russians. It represents military valour, and was previously used with medals in Tsarist Russia and the Soviet Union. It only came into widespread use in 2005 - apparently in reaction to orange ribbons which pro-democracy demonstrators in Ukraine had adopted as their symbol.
Motorists in Russia put the ribbons on their cars, and women tie them to their handbags. They are also widely used on products, ranging from shoes and sofas to packs of frozen food and bottles of vodka. In Moscow, a grooming salon even offered to paint St George's ribbons on dogs' backsides.
The ribbons' ubiquity and use in the unlikeliest of places has provoked a backlash from those who think it insults the memory of war veterans. Several MPs have urged restrictions. "You can't touch religious symbols, you can't put them on consumer goods," said Vladimir Zhirinovsky, a prominent nationalist MP.
Russia's Great Patriotic War 1941-1945
- 22 June 1941: Nazi German troops invade Soviet Union, despite 1939 non-aggression pact (known as Molotov-Ribbentrop pact)
- Winter of 1942-43: Germany's relentless advance blocked at Stalingrad, south Russia - around two million soldiers and civilians die in long battle
- 1944: Soviet offensive spreads across Eastern Europe as German troops retreat
- 21 April 1945: Soviet troops enter Berlin
- 30 April 1945: Hitler commits suicide
- More than 60 million war dead globally - heaviest losses were Soviet, an estimated 26 million
Some World War Two remembrance displays have caused controversy. Particularly contentious is the use of portraits of Joseph Stalin, as rights activists argue that he was responsible for the deaths of millions of Russians, and other Soviet nationalities.
One portrait shows the Soviet wartime leader offering Victory Day greetings from huge billboards in the southern town of Mineralnye Vody.
In Kaluga, central Russia, a banner threatened that Rome would be next for annexation after Crimea - the two names rhyme in Russian. It also listed the recent battle of Ilovaysk in Ukraine among the major victories scored by the Russian military over the centuries. Yet the Kremlin insists that no Russian regular troops are involved in the Ukraine crisis.
Inmates at a St Petersburg prison were made to line up and form lines spelling Victory Day messages seen from the air. To mark the war anniversary, seals in a zoo in the Siberian city of Irkutsk were made to wear paratroopers' caps and swim with toy guns.