Ukraine profile - Media

Elderly woman watches TV while man reads a newspaper Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption Information warfare with Russia has had a profound impact on the media landscape.

Television dominates the media scene, and private commercial channels are the most watched outlets.

Powerful business groups are influential in the market. Half a dozen major networks, including Inter TV and 1+1, attract the biggest audiences.

As part of reforms, Ukraine launched a public service TV broadcaster in 2015.

Many newspapers publish Ukrainian and Russian-language editions. The press is diverse in terms of formats and political affiliation.

National media have adopted a united patriotic agenda following the Russian annexation of Crimea and armed conflict in the east. Ukraine has banned cable relays of leading Russian TVs; in turn, areas under Russian or separatist control have seen pro-Kiev outlets silenced.

Violence against journalists and curbs caused by the conflict in the east have raised concerns about media freedom. Reporters Without Borders says the government has been "tempted to use media control in response to security challenges".

Around 58 per cent of Ukrainians - 21.1 million people - go online at least once a month, according to a 2015 marketing study.,,, and are the most visited websites. Russia's VKontakte is the leading social network, followed by Facebook, Odnoklassniki and Twitter.

The press



News agencies/internet