The media are dominated by pro-government outlets. In the press, critical voices are limited to a few low-circulation publications.
Television is the leading news medium, although audiences are gravitating online. Statements by officials and live speeches by President Erdogan are staple features of coverage.
State broadcaster TRT operates in many languages, including the main minority language, Kurmanji Kurdish.
The biggest media group is government-friendly Demiroren, which owns the popular Hurriyet and Posta newspapers and CNN Turk and Kanal D TVs.
Critical news outlets can face police raids, tax fines and other hostile measures. Most arrested journalists are charged with membership in, or propaganda for, groups considered as terrorist organisations.
Reporters for Kurdish media are regularly detained and jailed. "Insulting the president" is a crime.
The courts routinely ban websites or block specific pages, including opposition news sites and content deemed to be linked to terrorism.
More than 70% of Turks use social media, which provide alternative voices to pro-government TVs. With mainstream media largely off-limits, independent and pro-opposition voices often rely on them to share news and opinion.
A 2020 law gives the government significant powers to regulate social media content. It obliges major platforms to store user data in Turkey and appoint a local representative to carry out content removal requests.