Turkey's failed coup in 2016 had a profound impact on the media. Under emergency rule, scores of media outlets were closed.
Dozens of journalists have been detained for supposed membership of a "terrorist organisation" or for spreading "propaganda for a terrorist group".
Broadcast and print media are dominated by pro-government outlets. In the press, critical voices are limited to a few low-circulation publications. Dissenting opinion is more likely to be found online.
TV is a leading source of news for most Turks. State-run TRT operates more than a dozen channels in many languages, including the main minority language, Kurmanji Kurdish.
The biggest media group is government-friendly Demiroren, which owns the popular Hurriyet and Posta newspapers and CNN Turk and Kanal D TVs.
Around 69 million Turks were online by mid-2019 (InternetWorldStats), around 83% of the population.
Facebook is the most popular platform, followed by Instagram and YouTube. Twitter is a popular forum for political debate.
Freedom House ranked Turkey "Not Free" in its Freedom on the Net 2018 report. It said that the courts routinely ban websites or block pages over content deemed to be linked to terrorism.