Spain profile - Media
Spain's public broadcaster RTVE competes with large and established commercial operators.
TV is the main news medium and satellite and cable are popular digital platforms.
Home-produced dramas, reality shows and long-running soap operas are staple fare on primetime TV.
Regional TV networks are operated by their respective governments and there are many local stations. Movistar+, owned by telecom firm Telefonica, is the biggest pay TV provider.
There is a free press that investigates high-level corruption, says US-based Freedom House. But the organisation raises concerns about the concentration of media ownership and what it says is political interference in public media.
There were nearly 43 million internet users by December 2017 (Internetworldstats.com). Facebook is the leading social media platform.
- El Mundo - Madrid-based daily
- El Pais - Madrid-based daily
- ABC - Madrid-based daily
- La Razon - Madrid-based daily
- La Vanguardia - Barcelona-based daily
- El Periodico de Catalunya - Barcelona-based daily
- TVE - public, services include national networks La Primera and La 2, satellite-delivered TVE Internacional, rolling news channel 24 Horas
- Tele Cinco - national, commercial
- Antena 3 - national, commercial
- Cuatro - national, commercial
- RNE - public, services include speech network Radio 1, cultural network Radio Clasica, youth-oriented Radio 3, news station Radio 5 Todo Noticias
- Cadena SER - commercial, operates more than 50 national, regional stations
- Onda Cero - commercial
- Cadena COPE - church-controlled