Andorra profile - Timeline


A chronology of key events:

Image caption, Parliament building: Co-princes remain titular heads of state

AD 803 - Emperor Charlemagne recovers area of present-day Andorra from Moors and is said to grant charter to its residents. After Charlemagne's death Andorra is granted to Spain's Count of Urgell by Charles II, grandson of Charlemagne.

1133 - Count of Urgell cedes Andorra to bishop of Urgell.

1278 - Under terms of "pareage" agreement, Andorra adopts joint allegiance to a French and a Spanish prince after disputes between French heirs to the Urgel countship and the Spanish bishops of Urgell.

1419 - Elected body, Council of the Land, is established to deal with local issues.

1607 - French royal edict establishes French head of state and bishop of Urgell as co-princes.

1866 - New Reform changes electoral system, heralds process of democratisation.

1933 - Judicial authority dissolves Council of the Land after unsuccessful attempt to install a Russian adventurer as "King Boris I". French gendarmes sent to restore order and elections are held for new council.

1936-39 - French troops sent to protect Andorra from spillover from the Spanish Civil War.

1939-45 - Andorra is neutral during the Second World War, becomes important smuggling route from Vichy France into neutral Spain.

1970 - Women given the vote.

Image caption, Andorra La Vella is the capital of Andorra

1982 - First executive branch of government - "Govern" in Catalan - takes office. Its head is elected by Council of the Land.

First constitution

1990 - Andorra signs customs union with EU.

1993 March - First constitution adopted by referendum. Document reduces feudal powers of two princes. New executive, legislative and judicial arms of government are set up. Andorra joins United Nations. France, Spain establish embassies.

1993 December - First general elections under new constitution. Ribas Reig elected as premier in January.

1994 December - Marc Forne Molne of Unio Liberal party becomes prime minister after resignation of Ribas Reig.

2001 - Marc Forne Molne re-elected.

2002 October - Controversy flares as government closes incinerator which had been exceeding EU emission levels 1,000-fold.

2005 April - Liberal Party again wins elections. Albert Pintat becomes premier.

2005 July - Cooperation agreement with EU comes into effect.

Image source, Getty Images
Image caption, Trade unions staged mass protests in 2004, denouncing the state as 'a fiscal paradise, but a social hell'

2009 March - Andorra agrees to ease banking secrecy rules to make it easier for other countries to pursue tax evaders and money launderers.

2009 April - General elections. Social Democrats win most votes but fail to gain a majority.

2009 June - Parliament elects Social Democrat leader Jaume Bartumeu Cassany prime minister.

2011 April - Opposition centre-right Democrats for Andorra coalition wins snap parliamentary election, defeating Jaume Bartumeu Cassany's Social Democrats. Antoni Marti of the Democrats takes office as prime minister in May.

2013 June - Andorra introduces personal income tax for the first time as it faces pressure from the European Union to tackle tax evasion.

2016 February - US lifts sanctions imposed in 2015 on Andorra's fourth-largest bank, the Banca Privada d'Andorra, for money-laundering.

2016 December - Parliament approves plans to end the secrecy of bank accounts held by EU residents from January 2018.

2018 March - Andorra witnesses its first major strike in 85 years, with a third of civil servants protesting against proposals to change their contracts.

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