Uzbekistan has one of Central Asia's biggest media markets. TV is the most popular medium and the state broadcaster operates the main national networks. Russian TV is widely watched.
Almost all media outlets are linked directly or indirectly to the state, says Freedom House.
Media freedom groups are watching for signs of a relaxation of media controls under President Mirziyoyev. Reporters Without Borders says his predecessor, Islam Karimov, oversaw censorship and the persecution of journalists during his years in office.
In 2018, Human Rights Watch described advances in media freedom as limited and said prosecutions of journalists and other government critics continued.
The state-owned telecom company controls the internet gateway and blocks access to dozens of websites that carry content related to sensitive political and social topics. Opposition and other critical websites are based abroad.
There were 15.5 million internet users by the end of 2017 - around 48% of the population (InternetWorldStats.com).
- Khalq Sozi (People's Word) - state-run daily
- Narodnoye Slovo (People's Word) - state-run, Russian-language daily
- Pravda Vostoka (Truth of the East) - state-owned, Russian-language daily
- Ozbekistan Ozovi (Voice of Uzbekistan) - published by ruling party
- Hurriyat (Freedom) - published by government agency
- National Television and Radio Company - state-run, operates multiple national and regional networks including flagship Ozbekistan and Uzbekistan 24 news TV