South Sudan clashes 'kill 400-500' after coup claim

Civilians gathered at the UN compound in Juba. 17 Dec 2013
Image caption Civilians have been pouring into the UN compound in Juba to seek shelter

Hundreds of people are believed to have died in clashes between rival South Sudan army factions, the UN says, quoting unconfirmed reports.

UN diplomats said they had been told by sources in the capital, Juba, that the death toll was between 400 and 500.

South Sudan has seen two days of clashes following a reported coup attempt against President Salva Kiir.

Fugitive opposition leader Riek Machar has denied government accusations that he tried to seize power.

"What took place in Juba was a misunderstanding between presidential guards within their division, it was not a coup attempt," he told the Sudan Tribune, a Paris-based news website, in an interview published on Wednesday.

Mr Machar, a former South-Sudanese vice-president who fell out with President Kiir in July, said he had no knowledge of or connection with any coup attempt.

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Media captionGerard Araud "It was apparently also a very ugly incident in terms of casualties."

President Kiir has said a group of soldiers supporting Mr Machar had tried to take power by force on Sunday night, but were defeated.

Amid continuing clashes on Monday and Tuesday, the government said 10 senior political figures, including a former finance minister, had been arrested.

Details of the fighting have been sketchy, but a meeting of the UN Security Council in New York on Tuesday was told that the clashes were "apparently largely along ethnic lines".

'Heavy toll'

French UN ambassador Gerard Araud, who holds the rotating presidency of the Security Council, said up to 20,000 people had taken refuge in the UN mission in Juba.

He said the council had received only "patchy information" in a briefing given by UN peacekeeping chief Herve Ladsous.

"Some reports are speaking of hundreds of casualties. For the moment we can't confirm this, but in any case it is a heavy toll," Mr Araud told the BBC.

He said the conflict had "the potential of a civil war" between the two main ethnic groups, the Dinka and the Nuer.

However, the governor of Unity State, Simon Kun Pouch, was quoted on the government website as saying that the conflict had nothing to do with tribes.

"There are people out there saying what has happened is between the Dinka and the Nuer tribesmen. We the leaders of this country would want to state here that this is not true," he said.

"If you see the people going with Dr Riek [Machar], some are Dinkas, some are Chol, Nuer and other tribes," he added.

The US has ordered all its non-emergency embassy staff to leave the country immediately.

In hiding

President Kiir said the clashes began when uniformed personnel opened fire at a meeting of the governing party, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM).

Fighting then continued into Monday when the government said it was back in full control.

However, fresh gunfire erupted on Tuesday near the presidential palace and many other areas of Juba.

Government officials say they are hunting for Mr Machar, who is believed to be in hiding.

Information Minister Michael Makuei Lueth told the BBC that his whereabouts have been unclear since the start of fighting on Sunday.

He said Mr Machar - who leads a dissident faction within the SPLM - was thought to have escaped with some troops.

On Tuesday, the government said former Finance Minister Kosti Manibe, former Justice Minister John Luk Jok and former Interior Minister Gier Chuang Aluong were among the 10 people arrested.

Many were members of the cabinet that was sacked in its entirety in July.

South Sudan has struggled to achieve a stable government since becoming independent from Sudan in 2011.

The independence referendum was intended to end a decade-long conflict, led by the SPLM, against the north.

But the oil-rich country remains ethnically and politically divided, with many armed groups active.

Map showing position of oilfileds in Sudan, source: Drilling info international

Both Sudan and the South are reliant on their oil revenues, which account for 98% of South Sudan's budget. But the two countries cannot agree how to divide the oil wealth of the former united state. Some 75% of the oil lies in the South but all the pipelines run north. It is feared that disputes over oil could lead the two neighbours to return to war.

Satellite image showing geography of Sudan, source: Nasa

Although they were united for many years, the two Sudans were always very different. The great divide is visible even from space, as this Nasa satellite image shows. The northern states are a blanket of desert, broken only by the fertile Nile corridor. South Sudan is covered by green swathes of grassland, swamps and tropical forest.

Map showing Ethnicity of Sudan, source:

Sudan's arid north is mainly home to Arabic-speaking Muslims. But in South Sudan there is no dominant culture. The Dinkas and the Nuers are the largest of more than 200 ethnic groups, each with its own languages and traditional beliefs, alongside Christianity and Islam.

Map showing infant Mortality in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

The health inequalities in Sudan are illustrated by infant mortality rates. In South Sudan, one in 10 children die before their first birthday. Whereas in the more developed northern states, such as Gezira and White Nile, half of those children would be expected to survive.

Map showing percentage of households using improved water and sanitation in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

The gulf in water resources between north and south is stark. In Khartoum, River Nile, and Gezira states, two-thirds of people have access to piped drinking water and pit latrines. In the south, boreholes and unprotected wells are the main drinking sources. More than 80% of southerners have no toilet facilities whatsoever.

Map showing percentage of who complete primary school education in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

Throughout the two Sudans, access to primary school education is strongly linked to household earnings. In the poorest parts of the south, less than 1% of children finish primary school. Whereas in the wealthier north, up to 50% of children complete primary level education.

Map showing percentage of households with poor food consumption in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

Conflict and poverty are the main causes of food insecurity in both countries. In Sudan, many of the residents of war-affected Darfur and the border states of Blue Nile and South Kordofan, depend on food aid. The UN said about 2.8m people in South Sudan would require food aid in 2013. The northern states tend to be wealthier, more urbanised and less reliant on agriculture.