Rwanda profile - Media
State TV and radio reach the largest audiences, and state-owned publications predominate in the print sector.
Radio - the main source of news - had a role in the 1994 genocide. Notorious "hate" station Radio Tele Libre Mille Collines (RTLM) was a vehicle for virulent anti-Tutsi propaganda.
Censorship is ubiquitous, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF) in its 2017 press freedom index. There have been fewer abuses against critical journalists in recent years as most have gone abroad or self-censor, says RSF.
Newspaper readership is limited and press titles often exercise self-censorship.
The BBC can be heard via FM in Kigali (93.9), Karongi (93.3) and Butare (106.1). The Voice of America and Deutsche Welle broadcast on FM in Kigali.
By 2016 around 1.5 million Rwandans were online (Internetlivestats.com). Government efforts to limit internet freedom have increased, Freedom House said in 2016. Numerous independent online news outlets have been blocked.
- The New Times - private, pro-government, English-language
- Television Rwandaise - state-owned
- Radio Rwanda - state-owned, broadcasts in English, French, Kinyarwanda and Swahili
- Radio 10 - private
- Flash FM - private
- Contact FM - private
- City Radio - private
- Radio Izuba - private
- Radio Maria - Catholic