The state controls much of the nation's broadcasting, though private radio stations have proliferated.
Radio is a key news source. Literacy levels are low. There is a government-run daily, as well as a handful of private titles.
Most media outlets struggle to survive financially, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
Journalists face difficulties, including occasional police violence and detention or prosecution over critical reporting, says US-based Freedom House.
In 2018, private media outlets protested against new taxes which they said were being used as a means of intimidation.
BBC World Service broadcasts in the capital (100.4 FM). There are also FM relays of Radio France Internationale (RFI) and Voice of America (VOA).
There were 2.3 million internet users by June 2019, around 10% of the population (InternetWorldStats.com). Of these, 480,000 are active social media users (We Are Social, January 2019).
Facebook is the most-used social network. Access to social media was blocked for three days during the 2016 presidential election.
- La Voix du Sahel - state-run, sole national station; broadcasts in French, Arabic, Hausa and vernacular languages
- Radio Saraounia - private
- Anfani FM - private
- R&M (Radio et Musique) - private
- Tenere FM - private