The media are highly-politicised and vulnerable to influence from their business and politics-linked owners, says Reporters Without Borders.
Although nationwide broadcasting remains a state monopoly, there are hundreds of private local radio and TV stations. Radio is the main medium for news.
BBC World Service radio is available on FM in Antananarivo (96.2), and Fianarantsoa and Toamasina (89.8). Radio France Internationale (RFI) is also carried by FM relays.
There were 2.6 million internet users by June 2019, 9.8% of the population (InternetWorldStats.com).