Eritrea country profile
Eritrea won independence from Ethiopia in 1993 after a 30-year war.
Bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia and Djibouti, it occupies a strategic area in the Horn of Africa but remains one of the most secretive states in the world.
Tensions with Ethiopia remain high across a closed and heavily fortified border. The perceived threat of war is said to have been used by the government to clamp down on society.
Eritrea is a one-party state, and its 1997 constitution - which provided for the existence of multi-party politics - has never been fully implemented. Military conscription is mandatory and indefinite, according to Amnesty International.
Prolonged periods of conflict and severe drought have adversely affected Eritrea's agriculture-based economy and it remains one of the poorest countries in Africa.
In a damning report into human rights abuses, the UN accused the government of crimes against humanity. By UN estimates, hundreds of thousands of Eritreans have fled the country in recent years, making the perilous journey across the Sahara and the Mediterranean to Europe.
President: Isaias Afwerki
President Isaias Afwerki has governed Eritrea since it became an independent country in 1993. His People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDF) is the sole political party.
Presidential elections planned for 1997 never took place and a constitution ratified in the same year has never been implemented.
Mr Isaias has been criticised for failing to introduce democratic reforms.
Born in 1946 in Asmara, Mr Isaias studied engineering at the University of Addis Ababa but left in 1966 to join the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF).
In 1970 he co-founded the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) and in 1987 was elected its secretary-general. When the EPLF defeated Ethiopian forces in 1991, Mr Isaias was appointed head of a provisional government.
Following the 1993 vote on independence, he was elected president of Eritrea and chairman of the National Assembly, giving him control of both executive and legislative branches of government.
Media beyond the state-sanctioned newspapers and broadcasters are non-existent.
Outlets run by Eritreans overseas provide alternative sources of news but their reach is limited, not least because of very low levels of internet access.
Some key dates in Eritrea's history:
300-600 - Present-day Eritrea forms part of the kingdom of Aksum.
1889-1941 - Italy colonises Eritrea.
1941-52 - British forces occupy and take over administration of Eritrea.
1952 - UN establishes Eritrea as an autonomous region within Ethiopia.
1962 - Ethiopia annexes Eritrea, turning it into a province and giving impetus to the independence struggle.
1991 - Eritrean People's Liberation Front wins war of independence, assisted by Ethiopian rebels who together with their Eritrean allies succeed in toppling Ethiopian President Mengistu Haile Mariam.
1993 - Eritrea votes for independence from Ethiopia in a UN-sponsored referendum and gains international recognition.
1997 - New constitution is drawn up but never implemented.
1998-2000 - Border war with Ethiopia. Tens of thousands are reportedly killed.
2009 - UN imposes sanctions on Eritrea for its alleged support of Islamist insurgents in Somalia.
2018 July - Ethiopia and Eritrea declare that their war is over.