Eritrea profile - Media
Eritrea is the only African country to have no privately-owned news media. There is no room for freely reported news and the media are subject to the whim of the president, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
The threat of imprisonment has led many journalists to go into exile, says the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ).
The government has held a monopoly over broadcasting since independence. The few privately-owned newspapers were closed in 2001 as part of a crackdown on the opposition.
Outlets run by Eritreans abroad provide alternative news, but their reach and influence inside Eritrea are limited.
Exile broadcasters include Paris-based Radio Erena, which broadcasts via shortwave in Tigrinya and Arabic.
There were around 71,000 internet users (1.3 per cent of the population) by 2017 (Internetworldstats.com).
"The government makes an effort to block many websites managed by Eritrean exiles," said Freedom House, a US-based international human rights organisation, in its 2016 Freedom of the Press assessment.
Eritrea has the lowest figure globally of mobile phone users, says the CPJ.
- Hadas Eritrea - government-owned, published three days a week
- Eritrea Profile - government-owned weekly, in English
- Tirigta - pro-government youth weekly owned by ruling party
- Geled - weekly youth paper
- Eri TV - state-run
- Voice of the Broad Masses of Eritrea (Dimtsi Hafash) - state-run, operates two networks, programmes in 11 languages
- Radio Zara - state-run, FM network
- Shabait.com - Ministry of Information website
- Erina (Eritrean News Agency) - state-run