European heatwave: Your guide to coping with hot weather
The summer has been unusually hot in much of Europe. With temperatures soaring above 40C in places, we take a look at the ways to cope with the heat.
Know the warning signs
If you are not used to such extreme temperatures, you could be vulnerable to heat exhaustion - so knowing the warning signs is key.
You should cool off immediately if you have the following symptoms: headaches, feeling dizzy, loss of appetite, nausea, excessive sweating, cramps, fast breathing and intense thirst.
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If your body's temperature goes over 40C (104F), heat-stroke can set in, which requires urgent medical help. Danger signs include sweat stopping - the person may feel hot, but dry - and breathing difficulties.
Heat-stroke can lead to loss of consciousness and serious complications, including permanent damage to vital organs or even death.
Those most vulnerable include the elderly, people with conditions such as diabetes, young children and people working or exercising outdoors.
Drink and eat smart
Because our bodies sweat more in hot weather, it is really important to replenish lost water levels. Our physical thirst is not a very reliable indicator of how dehydrated we are (urine colour is better), so you should try to drink plenty before you feel parched.
Try not to drink too much caffeine or alcohol, as they are diuretics that can increase dehydration.
Foods with high water content such as strawberries, cucumber, lettuce, celery and melon can also help you stay hydrated.
Try to avoid large, heavy meals laden with carbohydrates and protein because they take more digesting, which in turn produces more body heat.
Although it may not be what you fancy on sweaty days, scientific research suggests spicy and hot foods can actually help cool you down.
Embrace the indoors
If you're on holiday somewhere experiencing high temperatures you are not used to, try to keep your activity levels low for the first few days and let your body acclimatise.
If you need to travel around somewhere hot, try to do it when the weather is at its coolest: early or late in the day.
If you chose to exercise in heatwaves, listen to your body - it will be under greater strain than in usual conditions so your usual limits may be different.
If you do intensive exercise, drink lots of water. Isotonic sports drinks can also help ensure you are rehydrating properly.
In general, stay in the shade or in air-conditioned places as much as possible, especially at the hottest part of the day.
Cold showers and blotting with damp, cold materials can also work wonders.
Dressing for the weather may sound obvious, but clothes can make a real difference to how our bodies handle heat. Avoid the temptation to strip off, because you may be at greater risk of sunburn, which can affect your body's ability to cool itself.
Wear light colours (dark colours absorb more of the light, converting it into heat) and loose garments that can allow air to get in. Hats with ventilation will help and fabric choice is key - materials like cotton and linen are more breathable, absorbing sweat and encouraging ventilation.
At night, fabric is critical again. Lightweight materials for bedding and nightwear can help you keep cool - as can sleeping naked and avoiding sharing space with partners.
Putting your sheets in the freezer for a bit before you go to bed can help you stay chilled through hot nights.
Hack the heat without AC
If you're eco-conscious then you'll want to stay away from air conditioning - which, thanks to the immense amounts of electricity needed to power them, have been linked to greenhouse gas emissions.
But in 40C heat, this is easier said than done.
However, there are some small, environmentally-friendly things you can do to keep yourself cool.
Try keeping your face creams and gels in the fridge, so when you apply them to your face they'll feel nice and cool.
And while you may want to let the sunlight stream in, leaving your curtains drawn through the day will help to minimise heat in bedrooms - especially if they're light-coloured blackout curtains. Unplugging any unnecessary electrical items will help too.
Keeping a damp towel and water spray bottle handy can also help - and for an even cooler fix, fill up a hot water bottle with ice.
Fans are also a good, if obvious, alternative to air conditioning - and placing a bowl of ice at an angle in front of your fan can help cool the air even more.
In case of wildfires
Spanish firefighters are now tackling Catalonia's worst wildfires in two decades - and weather conditions can play a large role in the ability of such fires to spread.
In hot weather, dry vegetation ignite and burn faster, causing fires to grow rapidly.
People should be extra careful discarding items such as matches and cigarettes, and local guidance on plant maintenance and burning waste should be followed.
If you see a fire that is unattended or appears out of control, you should contact emergency services immediately.
National Geographic recommends learning your evacuation route in advance if you live in a risk area. Clearing a trench around your property and keeping emergency supplies handy is also a good idea.
If evacuating, close all windows shut off gas supplies and remove combustibles. Filling vessels like bathtubs and bins with water can also deter fire spread.
If you are caught near a fire, stay calm and seek out somewhere like a river to protect yourself.
If this isn't possible, find a spot without vegetation and lie face-down, if possible covered in something damp.
A wet cloth over your mouth will help prevent smoke inhalation while breathing.