A Welsh independence rally, organised by All Under One Banner (AUOB) Cymru, attracted large crowds in the capital on Saturday.
Speaking ahead of the event, Plaid Cymru leader Adam Price said that people were "waking up" to the idea that independence was normal.
He added: "The tide is turning, the marches are growing, and the voices are louder".
Campaigners gathered outside City Hall before marching through Cardiff.
One marcher told BBC Wales that he estimated there were "about two thousand people" at the rally.
Mr Price cited the emergence of grassroots pro-independence groups as a sign that attitudes were changing.
Llywelyn ap Gwilym, of AUOB, said he was delighted with the turnout and hoped it was the first in a series of marches across Wales.
He said: "It's about getting people out on the streets, off social media and making the discussion about independence part of the mainstream."