An appeal against a rejected planning application for 366 houses has failed because of the negative impact it may have had on the Welsh language.
Gwynedd Council first refused developer Morbaine's plan for the homes at Pen Y Ffridd in Penrhosgarnedd, Bangor, in April 2016.
Campaigners argued the development would cut the number of Welsh speakers in the area by at least 10%.
The Planning Inspectorate rejected the appeal on Tuesday.
About 52% of people in the area are fluent in Welsh, but campaigners Cymdeithas yr Iaith said language was not considered as a factor in the initial planning application when it was submitted.
It also cited the impact on the road network, schools and the nearby Ysbyty Gwynedd Hospital as reasons for rejecting the appeal.
Planning Inspector Kay Sheffield wrote: "I am no longer persuaded that the submitted information proves that the development would not have a detrimental effect on the Welsh language."
Councillor Gareth Roberts, who represents the area's residents on Gwynedd Council, said: "We stood firm on this issue from the outset.
"Local residents did not want to see a development of this size coming to the ward. Its effect would have been very detrimental."
Morbaine did not wish to comment.