Shadow Scottish Secretary Dave Anderson is to step down as an MP at the snap general election in June.
Mr Anderson, the MP for Blaydon in north east England, took over as Labour's frontbench spokesman on Scotland after Ian Murray quit the job.
His appointment was controversial as he does not represent a Scottish seat.
Mr Anderson, who served at Westminster for 12 years, said he had "reluctantly" decided not to stand for reasons of "health, age and my family's needs".
The former miner also fulfilled the role of shadow Northern Ireland Secretary.
Mr Anderson, 63, won his Blaydon seat with a majority of 14,227 in 2015.
He took over the Scottish role in July 2016 after Mr Murray resigned citing a lack of confidence in party leader Jeremy Corbyn.
He said the snap election in June was "nothing more than a cynical attempt by the Tories to put their interests before the country", but said he welcomed the chance to take Labour's case to the public.
He said: "I have reluctantly decided that for reasons of health, age and my family's needs, I cannot commit to another five years in parliament.
"To that end I will stand down, but I will be campaigning hard with our new candidate and the positive policy platform put forward by our leader, Jeremy Corbyn, and the whole Labour movement.
"We'll show the people of Blaydon that there is a different, more positive and hopeful way to run our country than that proposed by the right-wing, anti-public service and pro-austerity Tory party."