Business investment in research and development (R&D) in Scotland has continued to lag well behind that in the rest of the UK, according to new figures.
An annual report by the Scottish government showed Scotland accounted for only 4% of private business R&D spending in the UK during 2011.
The total was £689m - a real terms increase of £54m on 2010.
The increase of 8.5% was less than half of Scotland's population share.
At the same time, R&D spending by higher education institutions, at £953m, was well above the 8.4% population share, at 13.4%.
And a measure of government spending on R&D, at £283m, was 12% of the UK total. It fell by £20m on 2010.
The low spend by private businesses was underlined by the calculation that it represented only 0.56% of Scotland's gross domestic product during 2011.
For the UK as a whole, it represented 1.14% and for the European Union, it stood at 1.2%.
In total, gross expenditure on R&D in 2011 was £1934m, which was 7.1% of the UK total.
Andrew Walker, corporate partner at law firm HBJ Gateley, said Scotland had a deserved reputation for producing great innovation, but the latest figures suggested that investment in R&D was "relatively poor".
"A lot of companies conduct R&D elsewhere in the UK, but we have a tremendous network of academia, entrepreneurs and active investors which make Scotland a very attractive place to innovate," he said.
"A clearer understanding of the support available in Scotland to companies which invest in R&D and create exciting, flourishing businesses would go some way to attracting more of them to Scotland, and the knock-on benefits that would bring.
"The decreases in the government and higher education figures underline the need for stimulus in business R&D expenditure."