Up to 300 jobs could be created in Glasgow and Dundee by Spanish wind turbine manufacturer, Gamesa.
The company wants to set up its centre for offshore engineering in Glasgow, creating up to 130 jobs.
It is also in talks to establish a logistics and manufacturing centre in Dundee, which could add up to 170 jobs.
News of the investment, which could be worth up to £40m to the Scottish economy, was confirmed at Holyrood by First Minister Alex Salmond.
He said: "Scotland has the greatest natural resources for offshore renewables in Europe and this hugely significant announcement by Gamesa underlines the strength of our human resources in terms of expertise in innovation, design, manufacturing and engineering.
"It is further testament to Scotland's leading role in the global development and deployment of renewables."
The Spanish company aims to establish an Offshore Wind Technology Centre in Glasgow, subject to final agreements on financing.
It is also developing a memorandum of understanding with Scottish Enterprise, Dundee City Council and Forth Ports plc to advance another potential development in Dundee.
This would centre on manufacturing, logistics and operations and maintenance.
Jorge Calvet, chairman of Gamesa, said: "I am delighted to confirm our commitment to the UK and Scotland as we become more deeply engaged with the UK's forward-thinking plans around offshore wind.
"Our plans for Glasgow and the potential for Dundee could generate significant local, skilled and sustainable jobs over the coming years."
The announcement by Gamesa follows moves by Scottish and Southern Energy, and another Spanish firm, Iberdrola, to choose Glasgow as their centre for design and co-ordination of offshore wind farms.
Ignacio Gálan, chairman of Iberdrola, which has a 20% stake in Gamesa, said: "Gamesa's announcement today boosts Scotland's role as a centre for the expanding offshore wind industry in the UK and abroad.
"We recently established our global headquarters for offshore wind projects in Glasgow, so the city is now very well placed to be a world leader in developing and delivering this new technology."