The new bridge to be built across the Firth of Forth is to be called the Queensferry Crossing.
Caledonia Bridge, Queensferry Crossing, St Margaret's Crossing, the Firth of Forth Crossing and Saltire Crossing were all in the running.
The search for a name has seen 35,000 votes cast by the public and more than 7,000 suggested names received.
The winner was announced by the first minister. The project is due to open in 2016 and will cost up to £1.6bn.
First Minister Alex Salmond made the announcement on a visit to the construction site of the new bridge to span the firth.
The first minister said: "It was Queen Margaret in the 11th Century who introduced a ferry to carry pilgrims across the Forth, giving the communities on either side of the Firth their name.
"The public's choice of Queensferry Crossing reflects the area's rich history and the continuing link between the two communities on the estuary's north and south banks."
A shortlist of five names had been chosen by an independent panel for the final decision, in what was a seven-month nomination and voting process.
Worries over structural issues with the current Forth Road Bridge saw plans for a new crossing brought forward, but it has since been found that the original road bridge can be maintained as a transport link.
Saint Margaret of Scotland lived in the 11th Century and became Queen Consort of Scotland when she married King Malcolm III Canmore.
She established a ferry crossing on the Forth, which carried pilgrims to St Andrews and Dunfermline, and gave North and South Queensferry their names.