A centre for research into genetics at Edinburgh University is to benefit from almost £60m of funding.
The money, from the Medical Research Council, will help scientists gain fresh insights into conditions such as cancer, arthritis, and schizophrenia.
The grants could also help doctors develop and deliver new tests and therapies for patients.
Edinburgh University said its Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine is already one of the largest in Europe.
The funding - paid over the next five years - aims to consolidate the IGMM's position as a world leader in genetics research.
Institute director, Prof Nick Hastie said: "The challenge we face is to work out how human genes work together to build a human.
"We also want to find out how subtle DNA differences help shape human diversity and influence susceptibility to a wide range of common diseases. This funding will help us to turn the potential of the genetic revolution into reality."
The money has been awarded to teams carrying out research on schizophrenia, cystic fibrosis, cancer, osteoarthritis and genetic eye disorders, amongst other conditions.
The IGMM is a partnership between the Medical Research Council, the University of Edinburgh's Centre for Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research UK.