Scots coffee 'stronger' than Italy and Spain
Coffee served in Glasgow is stronger than brews in Italy and Spain, according to new research.
Researchers in all three countries said their findings had implications for people who needed to watch their caffeine intake.
They said counting how many cups you drank could not be used to measure how much caffeine you were consuming.
Caffeine can reduce fatigue and some disease symptoms but it can also induce anxiety.
Earlier research by the University of Glasgow had found wide variations in caffeine levels in the city's west end cafes.
Now they have joined scientists in Parma and Pamplona, testing more than 100 espressos - and some cappuccinos and instant coffees.
Writing in the journal Food and Function, they said some Glaswegian brews were the strongest.
They warned regular coffee drinkers could exceed their daily recommended caffeine limit without knowing it.
The research said coffee in Scotland usually used more heavily-roasted beans and the serving sizes were larger.
The amount of caffeine per serving of an espresso in Scotland ranged from 72mg to 212mg.
This compared to a range of 73mg to 135mg per serving for Italian espressos and 97mg to 127mg in Spain.
The caffeine content of cappuccinos purchased in Scotland varied from 101mg to 275mg per cup.
Pregnant women are advised not to have more than 200mg of caffeine per day.
Researchers recommended "readily available information on bean variety and caffeine levels".