The owners of grouse moors in Scotland are making more profits, according to a new study of the industry.
However, the Fraser of Allander Institute report also said its economic impact was limited, with as few as 220 jobs directly dependent on it.
Economists at the Strathclyde University-based institute surveyed about a third of estates covering 7% of Scotland's land area.
Sixteen years ago, 2% were turning a surplus, this year that figure was 42%.
The improvement is explained by the rise in shooting fees exceeding inflation in recent years, and more shooting days are being paid for, even though the number of birds being shot has declined.
The researchers believe there may be just 220 directly employed in grouse shooting, with a total value to the economy of nearly £11m.