Seven former officers at a youth detention centre have appeared in court charged with abusing inmates during the 1970s and 1980s.
Nearly 1,400 men have claimed they were abused at Medomsley, in County Durham.
The seven men have been charged with misconduct and physical abuse, with four also accused of sex offences.
No pleas were entered at Newton Aycliffe Magistrates' Court and they were bailed to appear before Teesside Crown Court on 16 January.
The defendants and their charges are:
- Kevin Blakey, 65, two counts of misconduct, two counts of wounding, and two of assault
- Alan Bramley, 69, misconduct, wounding, and two counts of assault
- Johnson Brian Greenwell, 70, misconduct, serious sexual assault, false imprisonment, and two counts of assault
- David McClure, 62, misconduct, wounding, and four counts of assault
- John McGee, 73, misconduct, four counts of assault, two counts of indecent assault, serious sexual assault, and wounding
- Christopher Onslow, 71, two counts of misconduct, two of serious sexual assault, two counts of wounding, two counts of wounding with intent, three counts of assault, and one of indecent assault
- Neil Sowerby, 60, misconduct, three counts of serious sexual assault, two counts of assault and four counts of indecent assault
Following an application on their behalf, the court did not release their addresses.