Cheshire East Council will block access to payday loan firms on all of its public computers, including libraries.
The council said the policy, agreed on Monday, would apply to all computers "wherever practically possible".
It said the policy was a bid to help to stop people "falling into a high-interest debt trap".
The Consumer Finance Association (CFA) said the authority was denying residents the chance to find short-term, flexible credit.
"Payday loans are increasingly popular and responsible lenders such as the CFA's members operate by a strict code of conduct which protects consumers," it added.