Plans for 13 bridges and tunnels to connect London across the Thames
Plans for 13 new London bridges and tunnels along the River Thames will "unlock areas for development", Mayor Boris Johnson has said.
The Connecting the Capital report features new crossings between Fulham in the west and Dartford in the east
TfL has launched public consultations on two of the crossings at Gallions Reach and Belvedere, both to the east.
The watchdog London TravelWatch said imposing a tolling regime would help regulate traffic and cut congestion.
If Transport for London's (TfL) plans are approved, the new crossings could be delivered by 2050.
The report is planning ahead for a city with a population of 10 million by 2030, up from 8.6 million.
Mr Johnson said: "By creating more links between the north and south of the river, we won't just improve day-to-day travelling across the capital, we'll unlock areas for development and create thousands of jobs and homes.
"From Fulham in the west to Dartford in the east, this is a vital package of crossings that will drive economic growth and get more people walking, cycling and on to public transport."
Most of the crossings will be in east London, which could see more than a third of the capital's total population growth.
Currently there are three road crossings and one bus route in the 14 miles (23km) between Tower Bridge and the M25.
A London TravelWatch spokesperson said: "It is important that they make effective provision for public transport and that local roads on either side of the river are accessible and safe for pedestrians and cycles.
"Any new river crossings must also have a tolling regime to ensure that they don't generate additional traffic and associated congestion."
The proposed river crossings:
- Diamond Jubilee bridge - pedestrian and cycle bridge connecting Fulham to Battersea
- Crossrail 2 - rail tunnel between Clapham Junction and Victoria
- Nine Elms to Pimlico - pedestrian and cycle bridge linking Vauxhall, Nine Elms and Battersea to Pimlico
- Garden Bridge - pedestrian crossing linking South Bank to Temple station
- Rotherhithe to Canary Wharf - a pedestrian and cycle bridge
- North Greenwich to the Isle of Dogs - a passenger ferry linking North Greenwich and the Isle of Dogs (Blackwall)
- Silvertown tunnel - a twin-bore tunnel connecting Silvertown on the north side to the Blackwall Tunnel Approach on the south side
- Charlton - potential passenger ferry crossing linking the Royal Docks and Charlton Riverside
- Crossraill - rail line linking Woolwich with Custom House and onward to Canary Wharf, central London and Heathrow Airport
- Gallions Reach - a multi-modal crossing linking Thamesmead with Beckton along a safeguarded alignment
- Barking Riverside to Thamesmead - a London Overground tunnel extension from Barking Riverside to Thamesmead
- Belvedere - a multi-modal crossing connecting Belvedere with Rainham
- Lower Thames Crossing - new road crossing linking Essex and Kent - being progressed by Highways England for the Government
Consultation is already under way on crossings at Gallions Reach, linking Thamesmead and Beckton, and Belvedere, which will connect Belvedere to Rainham.
It has not been decided whether these should be bridges or tunnels, but the aim is to boost walking and cycling links. If approved, the crossings could open by 2025.
London Assembly Green Party Member Darren Johnson said plans for mixed traffic Silvertown Tunnel, Belvedere and Gallions Reach should be reconsidered.
"London deserves better than toxic roads that will worsen air quality, jam the city up with traffic and distract the mayor from building decent links for cyclists, rail commuters and people who want to get around by foot."