The boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, and Islington have the lowest rates of life expectancy and mental well-being in London, a report says.
The London Health Commission study found "significant inequalities" in health exist between the 32 London boroughs and neighbourhoods.
People living in Bexley, Sutton, Havering, Kingston, Richmond and Merton have the best health in London.
Income, education and work affect Londoners' health, the report reveals.
Behind other cities
The report - Fair Society, Healthy Lives - suggests people in the most deprived areas have lower life expectancy, can expect to live fewer years without disability and are more likely to lack social support.
They also have lower mental wellbeing and their children are less likely to have reached a good level of development as they start school, the report shows.
The difference in life expectancy between those living in the most and least deprived neighbourhood areas of London is 7.2 years for males and 4.6 years for females.
The report shows on average London fares slightly better than England as a whole.
London has higher life expectancy than New York, but is behind other world cities, such as Tokyo, Paris and Sydney, especially for female life expectancy.
The London Health Commission, which is part of the Greater London Authority, works to tackle health inequalities and improve health for all Londoners.