A recycling plant has been denied planning permission after concerns were raised about noise and dust.
Haulier TMR Southcoast Ltd wanted to build a recycling facility for construction and demolition waste on farmland at Three Maids Hill, off the A272, near Winchester.
But the proposals attracted more than 200 objections from residents.
Hampshire County Council narrowly voted to reject them at a regulatory committee meting on Wednesday.
TMR Southcoast Ltd said measures would be put in place to protect local residents and the environment, and planning officers had recommended for the proposals to be approved, the Local Democracy Reporting Service (LDRS) reported.
The waste haulier said Hampshire has "a pressing need for new waste management capacity" and measures like vegetation would stop dust from spreading to nearby sites.
But during the meeting county councillors said they were faced with an "extremely difficult decision".
Stephen Burgess, chairman of Littleton and Harestock Parish, raised concerns over traffic and the impact of the scheme on the rural area.
County councillor Jan Warwick, asking for the plans to be rejected, said: "I do not see the overwhelming evidence in support of this application that would justify ignoring some potential conflicts with local and county policy."
Planning officers previously said the plans will not cause "an unacceptable adverse visual or landscape impact" and will not cause "adverse public health and safety impacts".
Eight councillors voted against the scheme, six voted in favour and two abstained.